- catapults



Stab vests for PCSOs criticised 
BBC News - Jun 29 2:34 AM
The Kent Police Federation says police community support officers should not get stab vests as their role is "non-confrontational".

The Money Monster: My Portfolio and Hugh Hefner's Dead Body 
Kiplinger.com - Jun 28 1:46 PM
Here's everything I own. Unfortunately, many of the small caps I own are getting killed today.

chad michael murray
Lawrence High and Free State High School honor rolls 
Lawrence Journal-World - Jun 29 4:54 AM
Lawrence High School announced its spring 2005-2006 honor roll students. Honor roll students attained a non-weighted 3.5 grade-point average or higher and took a minimum of five classes for a letter grade.

Ciara Dances In The Dark With Chamillionaire In 'Get Up' Video 
MTV Music Television - Jun 27 12:36 PM
Ciara will be shrouded in near-darkness in the video for "Get Up," which features the stars of the movie "Step Up." As she sneaks out to go dancing, the city will pulse with light and Ciara will meet up with Chamillionaire on a club's rooftop.

Chrysalis Radio creates podcast for Chanel 
New Media Zero - Jun 29 3:08 AM
Chrysalis Radio's recently launched podcast production division is to create an exclusive autumn/winter podcast in conjunction with French fashion brand Chanel.

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Ager, Brown And Davis Selected In NBA Draft 
CSTV's College Sports - Jun 28 10:24 PM
Ager and Brown chosen in first round. EAST LANSING, Mich. - Childhood dreams became a reality for three Spartans on Wednesday night as Maurice Ager , Paul Davis and Shannon Brown were selected in the 2006 NBA Draft at Madison Square Garden in New York. Brown and Ager were both picked in the first round as the Cleveland Cavaliers chose Brown at No. 25, followed by Ager going to the Dallas

Japanese leader's US visit offers apt end to 5-year run 
Boston Globe - Jun 29 1:09 AM
TOKYO -- Junichiro Koizumi is about to leave the building. After his five years as Japan's prime minister, the curtain is coming down on the leader who alternately charmed and bullied his country into overhauling atrophied political and economic systems, while casting its lot more deeply with Washington.

cheat codes
Tenet Healthcare Corporation to Pay U.S. More Than $900 Million to Resolve False Claims Act Allegations 
[Press Release] U.S. Newswire via Yahoo! News - 2 hours, 48 minutes ago
Tenet Healthcare Corporation, operator of the nation's second largest hospital chain, has agreed to pay the United States more than $900 million for alleged unlawful billing practices, Assistant Attorney General Peter D. Keisler of the Civil Division and U.S. Attorney Debra Wong Yang of the Central District of California in Los Angeles announced today.

cheat planet
On Screen 
Toronto Eye Weekly - Jun 28 7:29 PM
Starring Brandon Routh, Kate Bosworth. Written by Dan Harris, Michael Dougherty. Directed by Bryan Singer. (PG) 154 min. Opened June 28.


Hi-tech cheats end up in hosptial 
The Inquirer - Jun 28 9:48 AM
HI-TECH CHEATS in China are finding out the hard way how cheating really isn't worth the effort.

Best Bets 
Carroll County Online - Jun 29 1:21 AM
What's new, Tom Jones? Musical superstar Sir Tom Jones (yes, he was knighted) will be at the Lyric Opera House in Baltimore for a 7 p.m. performance Sunday.

Man Claims Dogs Killed His Chihuahua 
KFOX 14 El Paso - Jun 28 7:29 PM
A Socorro man said his neighbor's three dogs killed his Chihuahua. Ulysses Dominguez said his Chihuahua, Estrellita, just had puppies three weeks ago.

Childbirth simulator enhances training at Hurley 
The Flint Journal - 1 hour, 20 minutes ago
FLINT - Doctors-in-training can practice delivering babies with a new full-sized, lifelike mannequin unveiled Wednesday at Hurley Medical Center. Named Noelle, the simulator has been used in places as far away as Afghanistan to teach the sometimes-unpredictable elements of childbirth.

RahXephon, Noir and Girls Bravo 
DVD Talk - Jun 22 7:17 AM
This week's column is short but sweet. We have reviews of two new boxed sets the stylish and action filled Noir, and the mysterious and intense RahXephon, as well as the first volume of Tactics.

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Kanye West, Chris Brown & Mary J. Blige Big Winners at 2006 BET Awards By Chris Richburg Date: 6/28/2006 9:50 am 
allhiphop.com - Jun 28 7:01 AM
Rapper/producer Kanye West and singers Mary J. Blige and Chris Brown emerged as the big winners Tuesday (June 27) with two awards each at this year's BET Awards.

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Lawrence High and Free State High School honor rolls 
Lawrence Journal-World - Jun 29 4:54 AM
Lawrence High School announced its spring 2005-2006 honor roll students. Honor roll students attained a non-weighted 3.5 grade-point average or higher and took a minimum of five classes for a letter grade.

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Top rock bands split to make Bandish 
IBN live - Jun 28 5:50 AM
Bandish, the new rock band, founded by Chris Powell released their new album Kaise Kahoon in Delhi.

Christina Aguilera Can Die Happy — She's Bonded With 'Bad Girl' Idol, Etta James 
MTV Asia - Jun 29 12:17 AM
Christina Aguilera says she can die happy now -- because she's met her idol, legendary R&B singer Etta James.

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Longoria, Applegate And Milian Skate With Simpson 
Teen Music - Jun 27 9:55 AM
Jessica Simpson enlisted sexy pals Eva Longoria, Christina Applegate and Christina Milian to join her for a rollerskating themed shoot for her latest video on Friday.

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Salma fights for women's rights in D&G style 
Hello! - Jun 27 1:26 AM
For socially conscious stars like Salma Hayek , supporting good causes is often more important than the glitz and glamour that goes with life on the A-list.

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South Florida Briefs 
Miami Herald - Jun 29 12:05 AM
Parents of teen accused in boating fatality sued The parents of a teenager accused in the death of a 6-year-old boy in a Memorial Day boating accident are being sued for $20 million in damages.

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TNA News: Wrestler Gone, Hemme/MySpace, More 
Lords of Pain - Jun 28 12:47 PM
Roderick Strong is gone from TNA. Strong briefly returned to television two months ago after serving a suspension due to that ROH incident, but he was not brought back. Also, his profile has been removed from the official TNA website.

Details On Degeneration-X; How Long Will They Survive? 
Wrestling News - Jun 28 5:57 PM
The reaction to the past few shows featuring Degenration-X has been a success, but the question remains, how long will it last? So far, they are redoing 1997, and people who lived through the generation of Four Horseman revivals know the first few weeks are good and then it fades fast.

Ciara Dances In The Dark With Chamillionaire In 'Get Up' Video 
MTV Asia - Jun 27 9:17 PM
In Ciara's upcoming video for "Get Up," she'll be shrouded in darkness, visible only through reflected light to accentuate her dance moves with a new effect. Director Joseph Kahn describes the look as "black-on-black futuristic."

Poison / Cinderella First Midwest Bank Amphitheater 6/21/06 
antiMUSIC - Jun 28 7:14 PM
As Cinderella hit the stage, it was clear that a musical onslaught would ensue with all of the intensity Tom Keifer and Jeff Labar could deliver. Usually a metal show of this nature is more glitz and glam than a diamond in the rough.

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Abiomed Gets FDA OK for Impella Study 
AP via Yahoo! Finance - Jun 27 7:36 AM
Heart device maker Abiomed Inc. said Tuesday that it received conditional approval from the Food and Drug Administration to begin a clinical trial for its Impella 5.0 circulatory support system.

On the Tube 
winnipegsun.com - Jun 28 1:01 AM
- Its judgment day on Canadian Idol. Two female and two male singers get the hook on the voter results show, on CKY Ch. 5 at 10 p.m. Winnipeg is guaranteed to have at least one man standing -- there are three local contenders in Jeremy Koz, Keith Macpherson and Rob James.

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Notes: Glavine feels Pedro's pain 
MLB.com - Jun 28 7:00 PM
Notes: Glavine feels Pedro's pain

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Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France

Catapults are siege engines using an arm to hurl a projectile a great distance. Any machine that hurls an object can be considered a catapult, but the term is generally understood to mean medieval siege weapons.

The name is derived from the Greek κατα (against) and παλλειγ(to hurl (a missile)). Originally, "catapult" referred to a dart-thrower, while "ballista" referred to a stone-thrower, but over the years, the two terms have swapped meaning.

Catapults were usually assembled at the site of a siege, and an army carried few or no pieces of it with them because wood was easily available on site.


  • 1 Types
  • 2 History
  • 3 See also
  • 4 External links
  • 5 References


Catapults can be classified according to the physical concept used to store and release the energy required to propel the projectile.

The first catapult distinct from hand-held launchers (bows, crossbows, slings etc.) was the greek gastrophetes, a crossbow so large it was braced against the abdomen rather than being held in the hand, hence the nickname belly-bow. The next step from this was a larger form a crossbow mounted on a stand, including early versions of the oxybeles (Greek for bolt shooter) and the ballista (the Roman version of the oxybeles). The arbalette à tour is a medieval version of the stand-mounted crossbow. These catapults are tensional, in that the energy is stored as tension and compression of the bow. Although similar to a crossbow, a sling on the end of the rope meant these weapons could be used for firing all sorts of projectiles, from rocks to pots of Greek Fire.

Subsequently, torsional catapults were developed: those with two torsion powered arms, the later versions of the ballista and oxybeles, and those with one torsion powered arm, the onager, known in medieval times as the mangonel. The bottom end of the throwing arm of the onager and the inner ends of both ballista arms are inserted into rope or fibers that are twisted, providing a torsional store of energy. Torsional ballistas were operationally equivalent to their tensional cousins, except the torsional energy store gave greater power. Onagers have an arm with a bucket, cup, or most often a sling to hold the projectile at one end.

Finally, the last type of catapult is a trebuchet, which uses gravity or traction rather than tension or torsion to propel the throwing arm. A falling counterweight or the effort of the operator(s) pulls down the bottom end of the arm and the projectile is thrown from a sling attached to a rope hanging from the top end of the arm, essentially like a sling attached to a giant see-saw. The counterweight is much heavier than the projectile.


In Europe, the first catapults appeared in later Greek times (400 BC-300 BC), early adopters being Dionysius of Syracuse and Onomarchus of Phocis. Alexander the Great introduced the idea of using them to provide cover on the battlefield in addition to using them during sieges.

Catapults were more fully developed in Roman and Medieval times, with the trebuchet being introduced a relatively short time before the advent of gunpowder, which made the catapult obsolete. Cannons replaced catapults as the standard siege weapon in Europe in the 14th century.

During medieval times, catapults and related siege machines were the first weapons used for biological warfare. The carcasses of diseased animals and those who had perished from the Black Death or other diseases were loaded up and then thrown over the castle's walls to infect those barricaded inside. There have even been recorded instances of beehives catapulted over castle walls.

During the trench warfare of the First World War, smaller catapults were used to throw hand grenades across no man's land into enemy trenches.

See also

  • Medieval siege weaponry
  • Slingshot
  • Aircraft catapult
  • Mass driver

External links

  • Catapult Plans and Design
  • Medieval Catapult Articles
  • Information about a Medieval Catapult


Catapult. The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (1971)de:Katapult es:Catapulta fr:Catapulte it:Catapulta he:קטפולטה nl:katapult no:Katapult pt:Catapulta

Search Term: "Catapult"

Stab vests for PCSOs criticised 

BBC News - Jun 29 2:34 AM
The Kent Police Federation says police community support officers should not get stab vests as their role is "non-confrontational".

Reading List: Desperate Networks 
Fast Company Magazine - Jun 28 9:30 PM
Desperate Networks shows how network TV got stuck on "smoking hot hits.

City may scale back weapons ordinance 
Times-Standard - Jun 29 4:22 AM
BLUE LAKE -- A proposed revision of the city's weapons ordinance may be headed for the trash heap.

Stronghold Legends Updated Impressions - Dragons, Giants, and Storming the Castle [PC] 
GameSpot - Jun 28 6:32 PM
Firefly Studios hopes you'll have fun stormin' the castle in this upcoming fantasy-themed strategy game.

Evans proves to be trouble for Bonnar 
Northwest Indiana Times - Jun 28 10:27 PM
The very nature of the Ultimate Fighting Championship practically requires that its combatants engage in plenty of pre-fight talk. "I think once Rashad's caught in a submission and can't breathe, he'll know he's in some trouble."

Mexican heartthrob Marcos hits right note in SA 
Independent Online - Jun 29 3:03 AM
Mexican-American heartthrob Marcos Hernandez's pop-flavoured RnB seems to have struck a chord with South African listeners. The singer's début CD, C About Me, houses ballads such as If You Were Mine, which has been a popular item on local radio.

A day in the life of... 
Gazette.Net - Jun 27 7:50 PM
Students in Janine Myers’ fifth-grade class at Christ Episcopal School in Rockville imagine living for a day as an inanimate object. This is the second installment of their work.

Word processing: Children, parents take on challenges of dyslexia 
Gwinnett Daily Post - Jun 27 9:11 PM
By Kay Miller Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune Don’t worry, Max Martens’ teacher kept assuring his mother, Bianca Zick of Minneapolis. It’s just a matter of time before things click and Max starts reading easily. But nothing “clicked.”

PawSox endure another letdown 
The Providence Journal - Jun 27 9:09 PM
Pawtucket can't hold an early lead and falls to Ottawa, extending its losing streak to four games.

Good Knight and Good Luck, As McClatchy Takes Charge 
Editor & Publisher - Jun 27 2:11 PM
NEW YORK McClatchy is finalizing its acquisition of Knight Ridder -- expected to happen today -- after 88% of Knight Ridder shareholders approved the deal during an annual meeting at the Fairmont Hotel in San Jose on Monday.